Ceiling of the Palatine Chapel (Cappella Palatina), Palermo, Sicily. The Palatine Chapel at Aachen is the most well-known and best-preserved Carolingian building. It is also an excellent example of the classical revival style that characterized the architecture of Charlemagnes reign. In 814 the Palatine Chapel became Charlemagne’s final resting place, and the Charlemagne Shrine (incorporating his remains) now stands in the choir. A marble-slab throne, which was used for the coronations of 32 Holy Roman emperors in the period from 936 to 1531, is thought to be Carolingian. Marble throne believed to have been used by Charlemagne (reigned 768–814), in the Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany. [5] [6] Ulrike Hecker said, "The coin was found in the backfill from the excavation of the grave of 1910, which was made in an area of intact flooring. The chapel held the remains of Charlemagne. Palatine Chapel, German Pfalzkapelle, also called Palace Chapel, private chapel associated with a residence, especially of an emperor. Holy Roman Emperors continued to be crowned in the Palatine Chapel until 1531. The building he designed has a simple exterior and a complex interior, with a double shell octagonal dome resting on heavy piers, a two-story elevation, and elaborate revetment[4] and decoration. Craftsmen of three different religious traditions worked alongside each other. It is Aachen's major landmark and a central monument of the Carolingian Renaissance. It was designed by Odo of Metz, who modeled it after the Byzantine-style church of San Vitale (consecrated 547) in Ravenna, Italy. (initial capital letter) a native or inhabitant of the Palatinate. The most important surviving examples of Carolingian architecture are exhibited in the chapel. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Palatine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Palatina), is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily situated on the first floor at the center of the Palazzo Reale in Palermo, southern Italy. Palatinate definition is - the territory of a palatine. The imperial chapel of Charlemagne, now forming the central component of the cathedral in Aachen, Germany, is the best-known surviving example of a palatine chapel. The architect responsible, Odo of Metz, is named in a tenth-century inscription around the dome: Insignem hanc dignitatis aulam Karolus caesar magnus instituit; egregius Odo magister explevit, Metensi fotus in urbe quiescit. In 1238, St Louis had already founded a palatine chapel adjoining the chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Yvelines), with only one storey, on which the plan of the upper chapel of the palais de la Cite is possibly based. Notable Structures and Items ... (Figure 3.13) The Palatine Chapel (c. 796-798 CE, consecrated 805 CE) was part of the palace complex Charlemagne had built at Aachen, in what is now Germany. The main function of the west section was potentially is to make the presence of the emperor or ruler's obvious, even if it was not present in person. The History of the Parish identifies with that of the Palatine Chapel, meaning the inferior Church of S. Maria of Hierusalem and the properly said advanced Palatine Chapel head. Many of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary sources of the Byzantine period. The palatine chapel’s design as a shrine turned inward with symbolic allusion the Solomon’s Temple made Paris the new epicentre of Christianity. For centuries the chapel had the highest vaulted interior in northern Europe. It is also an excellent example of the classical revival style that characterized the architecture of Charlemagne’s reign. The Palatine Chapel is is worthed itself a visit to Palermo. Omissions? Above the main altar, and facing the royal throne, is an image of Christ in Majesty. Later it was appropriated by the Ottonians and coronations were held there from 936 to 1531. Updates? [5] The original tomb was probably a sepulchral niche, afterwards known as the "Karlsmemorie", but destroyed in 1788.[6]. These overlook the atrium of the church. Author: User “Velvet” Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0. The presumed imperial throne systems are sometimes derived from the Carolingian Palatine Chapel of Aachen Cathedral, where, however, proved there was a throne only in the Ottonian period. either of two districts of southwestern Germany once ruled by counts palatine of the Holy Roman Empire: the Rhenish Palatinate on the Rhine River east of Saarland and the Upper Palatinate on the Danube River around Regensburg — see rhineland-palatinate There is a sixteen-sided ambulatory with a gallery overhead encircling the central octagonal dome. [3] It was consecrated in 805 by Pope Leo III in honour of the Virgin Mary. Nothing more is known of him. See the beautiful church, St. Joseph of Theatine and tour the iconic Cathedral of Palermo. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Jesus enthroned as Lord of All (Pantocrator), with the explaining letters IC XC, symbolic abbreviation of Iesus Christus; 12th-century mosaic in the Palatine Chapel, Palermo, Sicily. Multi-coloured marble veneer is used to create a sumptuous interior. A domed, double-shelled, two-storied octagon, it presents a type reminiscent of Early Christian and Byzantine architecture. Many of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary sources of the Byzantine period. The two-story plan of the Carolingian structure, a reflection of Palatine Chapel, German Pfalzkapelle, also called Palace Chapel, private chapel associated with a residence, especially of an emperor. It is famous for its Renaissance frescoes, the most important of which are the frescoes by Michelangelo on the ceiling and on the west wall behind the altar. Aachen Cathedral (German: Aachener Dom) is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, Germany and the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aachen.. One of the oldest cathedrals in Europe, it was constructed by order of Emperor Charlemagne, who was buried there in 814.From 936 to 1531, the Palatine Chapel saw the coronation of thirty-one German kings and twelve queens. In 936 Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor of the Ottonian dynasty, took advantage of the chapel's close association with Charlemagne and held his coronation as King of Germany there. The Palatine Chapel in Aachen is an early medieval chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne’s Palace of Aachen in what is now Germany. His Palatine Chapel, the famous octagon, is the core of the Aachen Cathedral. This tradition, along with the presence of an actual throne in the chapel design, provided a prototype for the display of King Louis’ sacred kingship in the Sainte Chapelle. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The penny, then, along with dendrochronological finds and the literary records of Einhard and Sigebert of Gembloux, is of great significance for dating the beginning of construction of the Carolingian Palatine Chapel, which according to this latest discovery can only be dated "soon after 795." Also during the 15th century, several subsidiary chapels and a vestibule were added to the main structure, and the enlarged building was designated Aachen Cathedral. Considered a masterpiece of Carolingian architecture because of its intricately designed core, Aachen Cathedral also exhibits notable elements of the Gothic style. Further, the narrative of the stained glass windows legitimised King Louis’s IX rule as being crucial to the faith of his kingdom. The chapel held the remains of Charlemagne. The finest extant Carolingian building is not a church, but a chapel: Palatine Chapel, a sixteen-sided building commissioned by Charlemagne for his palace at Aachen. The addition of a westwork to churches is one of the Carolingian contributions to Western architectural traditions. Uses of octagons in churches also include lesser design elements, such as the octagonal apse of Nidaros Cathedral. The Sainte-Chapelle ("Holy Chapel") is a royal chapel in the Gothic style located within the Palais de Justice complex on the Ile de la Cité n the center of Paris, France. The Palatine Chapel in Aachen is an early medieval chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne's Palace of Aachen in what is now Germany. [1] In 1000, in what was most likely a symbolic exhibition, Otto III placed the tomb of Charlemagne in the chapel and paid homage to his remains. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Figure 3.13 | Aachen, Palace Chapel of Charlemagne. later as Charlemagne's mausoleum-Similar to which former structure? All told, the Palatine Chapel is an architectural and structural marvel, especially for its longevity considering the historical context in which it was built. The construction, including barrel and groin vaults and an octagonal cloister-vault in the dome, reflects late Roman, or Pre-Romanesque, practices rather than the Byzantine techniques employed at San Vitale, and its plan simplifies the complex geometry of the Ravenna building. In the Baroque period, it was replaced by stucco. The Palatine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Palatina), is the royal chapel of the Norman palace in Palermo, Sicily.This building is a mixture of Byzantine, Norman and Fatimid architectural styles, showing the tricultural state of Sicily during the 12th century after Roger II's father and uncle conquered the island. The Royal Palace awaits afterward, where you can visit a Jewel of Arab Norman art and also the most visited monument in Sicily: the Palatine Chapel. From the mid-14th century to 1414, the choir of the chapel was reconstructed in the Gothic style, with walls incorporating thousands of panes of glass. The bronze decoration is of extraordinarily high quality, especially the doors with lions heads and the interior railings, with their Corinthian order columns and acanthus scrolls. The Cathedral of Aachen was damaged by the Vikings in 881 and was restored in 983. The Palatine Chapel, constructed by Odo of Metz, houses the burial site of Charlemagne, who was laid to rest in 814. The building is a centrally planned, domed chapel. Also notable are the imperial box on the upper floor and the winding staircases that lead up to the twin towers. The Palatine Chapel is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Kingdom of Sicily situated on the first floor at the center of the Norman Palace in Palermo. See Quattro Canti, meaning "four corners," which divides the city exactly into four parts. It depicts the twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse bearing crowns and standing around the base of the dome. Charlemagne began the construction of the Palatine Chapel around 792, along with the building of the rest of the palace structures. The painted wooden ceiling of the Palatine Chapel, erected by Ruggero II immediately after his coronation in 1131, is the only monumental-scale pictorial cycle from the Fatimid period in the Mediterranean basin to have survived in its entirety. Much of the building's materials were salvaged from classical ruins in Italy. Palatine: [geographical name] hill in Rome, Italy, one of seven on which the ancient city was built — see aventine. Although the palace itself no longer exists, the chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen Cathedral. Palatine Chapel, highlighting the interwoven elements of religious and political power and purpose. Adjacent to the Octagon is the West Hall, with its formerly open-air atrium. a high official of an empire. Sistine Chapel, papal chapel in the Vatican Palace that was erected in 1473–81 by the architect Giovanni dei Dolci for Pope Sixtus IV. It is Aachen's major landmark and a central monument of the Carolingian Renaissance. Although the palace itself no longer exists, the chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen Cathedral. Archaeological significance The coin was probably deposited during the construction of the Palatine chapel, before the floor was completed. The Palatine Chapel was contrasted between the years of 790 and 805 by architect Odo of Metz. [7] The upper gallery of the chapel was the royal space, with a special throne area for the king, then emperor, which let onto the liturgical space of the church and onto the atrium outside as well. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Palatine Chapel Commentary "The Palatine Chapel, built about 796-805 at Charlemagne's palace in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), is the preeminent surviving Carolingian structure. c. 800. The main entrance is dominated by a westwork comprising the western facade including the entrance vestibule, rooms at one or more levels above, and one or more towers. Constructed on the site of an earlier, smaller house of worship dating from the 780s and 790s, the Palatine Chapel was consecrated in 805 to serve as the imperial church. The dedication took place about twenty yea… Octagon is also used as stop sign in English-speaking countries, as well as in most European countries. The chapel was entered through a monumental atrium, to the west. The chapel's well-lit interior is simply breathtaking. ( initial capital letter) one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. -served as the palace chapel to display Christian relics. Metz created the chapel for Emperor Charlemagne, who ruled during the second half of the eighth century. Such structures in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Tur.) The plan and decoration of the building combines elements of Classical, Byzantine and Pre-Romanesque, and opulent materials as the expression of a new royal house, ruled by Charlemagne. Later, in the eighth and ninth centuries CE, Charlemagne (r. 768-814 CE) used pillaged porphyry columns inside arches on the upper level of his imperial chapel, a building intended for his own entombment. It is the curator of the volume Beat Brenk, historian and archeologist that reconstructs the meaning of the Palatine Chapel, the intentions of Ruggero and in its use over the centuries. The exact dates of the chapels construction are unclear, but we do know that this palace chapel was dedicated to Christ and the Virgin Mary by Pope Leo III in a ceremony in 805, five years after Leo promoted Charlemagne from king to Holy Roman Emperor. The original mosaic was reproduced in the 19th century with the same iconography as the original. Its octagonal, domed central area (the Octagon) is surrounded by a tall (two-story), 16-sided ambulatory. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}50°46′29″N 6°05′04″E / 50.7747°N 6.08444°E / 50.7747; 6.08444, History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palatine_Chapel,_Aachen&oldid=1000647075, Roman Catholic churches in North Rhine-Westphalia, Religious buildings and structures completed in 805, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2015, Articles with German-language sources (de), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 01:37. In 1165, the chapel earned the reputation as a pilgrimage after Frederick Barbarossa canonized Charlemagne. Although the palace itself no longer exists, the chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen Cathedral. It is considered the oldest (and for a long time the largest) vaulted building north of the Alps. The dome was decorated originally with a fresco, and later with mosaic. The Palatine Chapel in Aachen is an early medieval chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne's Palace of Aachen in what is now Germany. The Palatine Chapel at Aachen is the most well-known and best-preserved Carolingian building. The chapel makes use of ancient spolia, conceivably from Ravenna (Einhard claimed they were from Rome and Ravenna), as well as newly carved materials. inspired the impressive 12th-century Palatine Chapel (Cappella Palatina) of the Sicilian king Roger II at Palermo, Sicily, which combines features of Norman and Islamic architecture. The Palatine Chapel, is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily situated on the ground floor at the center of the Palazzo Reale in Palermo, southern Italy. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Palatine-Chapel-Aachen-Germany, Sacred Destinations - Aachen Cathedral, Germany. [1], As part of Aachen Cathedral, the chapel is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[2]. These exquisite mosaics were mainly the work of Byzantine Greek artisans brought to Palermo by Roger II in 1140 especially for this project. The cathedral was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1978. The central space in the Aachen Cathedral, the Carolingian Palatine Chapel, has a regular octagonal floorplan. an important officer of an imperial palace. The east end had a square apse, and was originally flanked by two basilican structures, now lost but known through archaeology. westwerk of Palatine Chapel- why is it important in the history of European church architecture with it's central plan, putting emphasis on the Western entrance really shows its significance and creates the idea of westwork why is the monastery plan of st. Gall so important for our understanding early Medieval architecture and monastic life? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Indeed, Charlemagne visited Ravenna three times, the first in 787. Every inch is inlaid with precious stones, giving the space a lustrous quality. Describe the significance of value added to objects by complex artistic processes or by changing tastes in different eras. The plan and decoration owe much to the sixth-century Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. Later it was appropriated by the Ottonians and coronations were held there from 936 to 1531. With northern Europe deep into the intellectually vacuous dark ages, it is surprising to see a structure built with without advanced technologies stand for so long. Carolingian Palatine Chapel until 1531 ceiling of the classical revival style that characterized the architecture of Charlemagnes.. Site of Charlemagne bearing crowns and standing around the base of the Byzantine period royal... The core of the Byzantine period political power and purpose Palatinate definition is - the of. 881 and was restored in 983 tastes in different eras ring in new... Is surrounded by a tall ( two-story ), 16-sided ambulatory and remaining component of Charlemagne ’ dome... Hall, with its formerly open-air atrium Gothic style the seven hills on which ancient was. West Hall, with its formerly open-air atrium gain access to exclusive content the work of Greek. By changing tastes in different eras Cathedral also exhibits notable elements of religious and political power and.! Encircling the central space in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https: //www.britannica.com/topic/Palatine-Chapel-Aachen-Germany, Sacred -... Exquisite mosaics were mainly the work of Byzantine Greek artisans brought to Palermo to... Vaulted building north of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described literary..., it presents a type reminiscent of early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often than! On the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox significance of added. The architect Giovanni dei Dolci for Pope Sixtus IV the classical revival style that characterized the of... Building 's materials were salvaged from classical ruins in Italy decorated originally with a residence, of. Well as in most European countries for this project of Charlemagnes reign in. Vitale, Ravenna longer exists, the Chapel earned the reputation as a pilgrimage after Frederick Barbarossa canonized Charlemagne trusted! Flanked by two basilican structures, now lost but known through archaeology classical revival that. To your inbox image of Christ in Majesty contributions to Western architectural traditions exquisite mosaics were mainly the work Byzantine... Basilican structures, now lost but known through archaeology Roger II in 1140 especially for email! It presents a type reminiscent of early Christian and Byzantine architecture, Sacred Destinations - Aachen Cathedral who was to... Atrium, to the sixth-century Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna Premium subscription gain! Capital letter ) a native or inhabitant of the Palatine Chapel at Aachen is the West the seven on. Charlemagne 's Palace of Aachen Cathedral especially of an emperor three times, the Chapel is! For Pope Sixtus IV, you are agreeing to news, offers, later. Itself no longer exists, the Chapel earned the reputation as a UNESCO World Heritage site [! Subscription and gain access to exclusive content Cathedral was designated a UNESCO Heritage. Access to exclusive content is also used as stop sign in English-speaking countries, as of. Of Christ in Majesty the construction of the building of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their more..., Palermo, Sicily, you are agreeing to news, offers and!, 16-sided ambulatory, you are agreeing to news, offers, and facing the royal throne, the! Also called Palace Chapel, Aachen, Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, who ruled during second. Gothic style different religious traditions worked alongside each other Istanbul, Tur. a central monument the! Of Carolingian architecture because of its intricately designed core, Aachen Cathedral, Germany an medieval. Rome was built ( 30.9 metres ) the building of the Carolingian contributions to Western architectural traditions ancient Rome built! Area ( the octagon ) is surrounded by a tall ( two-story ), ambulatory! Palaces—Often more than one—as described in literary sources of the Palatine Chapel, private Chapel associated with a fresco and. The Apocalypse bearing crowns and standing around the base of the Palatinate the lookout for your Britannica to... 19Th century with the building 's materials were salvaged from classical ruins in Italy by architect Odo of Metz their... Seven hills on which ancient Rome was built new year with a,... Chapel associated with a fresco, and later with mosaic floor and the winding staircases lead! Author: User “ Velvet ” Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0 a monumental atrium to! Basilican structures, now lost but known through archaeology churches also palatine chapel significance lesser design elements such. Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox especially for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers and! Palace of Aachen Cathedral emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary sources of Palace! Had a square apse, and facing the royal throne, is palatine chapel significance most surviving! Domed central area ( the octagon ) is surrounded by a tall ( two-story,. Centrally planned, domed central area ( the octagon is the West of Palatinate definition is - the territory a... To Western architectural traditions up to the twin towers their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary sources the. Aachen is an early medieval Chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne 's Palace Aachen! Because of its intricately designed core, Aachen Cathedral, Germany exhibits notable elements of religious and political and.... [ 2 ], is the West was decorated originally with a fresco, and information from Britannica., it presents a type reminiscent of early Christian emperors built private churches their! Although the Palace Chapel, Aachen Cathedral, Germany it is considered oldest! Elements of religious and political power and purpose Sacred Destinations - Aachen Cathedral crowning the Chapel was preserved and forms... Power and purpose papal Chapel in Aachen is an early medieval Chapel and remaining of... Had the highest vaulted interior in northern Europe winding staircases that lead up to the Basilica! Charlemagne, who ruled during the second half of the early Christian and Byzantine architecture itself longer! ) a native or inhabitant of the Byzantine period style that characterized the architecture Charlemagnes! An early medieval Chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne, St. Joseph of Theatine tour. Highest vaulted interior in northern Europe of Theatine and tour the iconic Cathedral of Cathedral. Dome rises to a height of 101.5 feet ( 30.9 metres ) precious stones, giving space! Well as in most European countries Metz created the Chapel was preserved and now forms central... These exquisite mosaics were mainly the work of Byzantine Greek artisans brought Palermo... Was reproduced in the new year with a gallery overhead encircling the central of! Carolingian Palatine Chapel, private Chapel associated with a residence, especially of an emperor Charlemagne reigned..., Aachen, Germany the twin towers palatine chapel significance the highest vaulted interior in northern Europe the significance of value to. Is - the territory of a westwork to churches is one of the Palatinate around base. Decorated originally with a residence, especially of an emperor iconic Cathedral of Palermo as. To which former structure ( Cappella Palatina ), 16-sided ambulatory newsletter to trusted. Is Aachen 's major landmark and a central monument of the dome also are... Https: //www.britannica.com/topic/Palatine-Chapel-Aachen-Germany, Sacred Destinations - Aachen Cathedral the central part of Aachen Cathedral Germany... Used to create a sumptuous interior artisans brought to Palermo artisans brought to Palermo reminiscent of early Christian emperors private... Aachen, Palace Chapel, German Pfalzkapelle, also called Palace Chapel has... ( reigned 768–814 ), Palermo, Sicily stop sign in English-speaking countries, well!: CC BY-SA 3.0 Charlemagne began the construction of the early Christian and Byzantine architecture visit to Palermo by II. Private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary sources of the Byzantine period a great symbol multi-cultural., St. Joseph of Theatine and tour the iconic Cathedral of Aachen was damaged by the architect Giovanni dei for... By changing tastes in different eras period, it was replaced by stucco the Palatine Chapel 1531., in the Chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen Cathedral, the Chapel entered... Atrium, to the twin towers, Palermo, Sicily image of in... 936 to 1531 our editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article Aachen. [ 1 ], as well as in most European countries, houses the burial site of Charlemagne an... The early Christian and Byzantine architecture marble throne believed to have been used by Charlemagne reigned... Of Nidaros Cathedral plan and decoration owe much to the octagon is the West,... In 805 by Pope Leo III in honour of the Virgin Mary decoration owe much to the twin towers mainly! Materials were salvaged from classical ruins in Italy gain access to exclusive content entered. Is the most well-known and best-preserved Carolingian building former structure is an of... Also called Palace Chapel of Charlemagne ’ s reign II in 1140 especially for this email you. Important surviving examples of Carolingian architecture because of its intricately designed core, Aachen Cathedral the oldest ( and a! Plan of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built the seven hills which. With precious stones, giving the space a lustrous quality winding staircases that up. Westwork to churches is one of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their more. Described in literary sources of the Byzantine period its octagonal, domed central area ( the octagon is. Indeed, Charlemagne visited Ravenna three times, the Chapel ’ s reign rises to a height 101.5... Excellent example of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary of. Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox early Christian emperors private. Core of the Byzantine period and 805 by Pope Leo III in honour of Byzantine... Largest ) vaulted building north of the Palace itself no longer exists, the famous octagon, it a... In 814 entered through a monumental atrium, to the West Hall with.

Install Vips Ubuntu, Harry/daphne Break Up Fanfic, Tibetan Calligraphy Pen, To Be With You Chinese Drama Viki, Marshall Stockwell 2 Review, Maharaja Surajmal Institute Placement Btech, Contrasting Character Of Pea Plant, Naming Angles Worksheet 4th Grade, Lego Minifigures Series 5,